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Our Science Glossary glossary_n

Glossary

NMR

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (spectroscopy). An analysis method that measures the influence of the chemical environment on a particular atom (usually a proton) in an intense magnetic field based on its spin transition induced by an electromagnetic pulse. Compounds analysed by this method produce a spectrum where each atom (or group) observed resonates at a different position, called chemical shift.

NDA or New Drug Application

An application submitted by the manufacturer of a drug to the FDA, after clinical trials have been completed, for a licence to market the drug for a specified indication in the United States. See also, BLA.

Narcolepsy

A sleep disorder marked by sudden, uncontrollable urges to sleep, causing an individual to fall asleep at inappropriate times.

Natalizumab

A humanised monoclonal antibody integrin-?4 antagonist that has proven efficacy in the treatment of two serious autoimmune disorders: multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease.

Neurons

Also known as nerve cells, electrically excitable cells in the CNS that process and transmit information. In vertebrate animals, neurons are the core components of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves.

Neuropathic pain

Pain that originates from a damaged nerve or nervous system. Diabetic neuropathic pain arises from nerve damage caused by diabetes mellitus. It may also be called diabetic neuropathy.

Neurotransmitter

Chemical that is released from a nerve cell which transmits an impulse from a nerve cell to another nerve, muscle, organ, or other tissue. A neurotransmitter is a messenger of neurological information from one cell to another

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

A group of cancers arising from lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas are a diverse group of diseases with varying courses, treatments, and prognoses. Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas may develop in any organ associated with the lymphatic system (e.g. spleen, lymph nodes, or tonsils). Most cases start with infiltration of lymph nodes, but some subtypes may be restricted to other lymphatic organs.

Non-small-cell lung cancer:

There are two major types of lung cancer: small-cell-lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). About 85% to 90% of lung cancers are non-small cell (NSCLC). There are 3 sub-types of NSCLC. Squamous cell carcinoma: about 25% - 30% of all lung cancers are squamous cell carcinomas. They are linked to a history of smoking and tend to be found centrally, near a bronchus. Adenocarcinoma: this type accounts for about 40% of lung cancers. It is usually found in the outer region of lung. People with one type of adenocarcinoma, known as bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (sometimes called bronchioalveolar carcinoma) tend to have a better outlook (prognosis) than those with other types of lung cancer. Large-cell undifferentiated carcinoma: This type of cancer accounts for about 10% - 15% of lung cancers. It may appear in any part of the lung, and it tends to grow and spread quickly resulting in a poor prognosis.