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Our Science Glossary glossary_e

Glossary

Efficacy

The ability of a drug to control or cure an illness.

EMEA or European Medicines Agency

A decentralised agency of the European Union with headquarters in London. Its main responsibility is the protection and promotion of public and animal health, through the evaluation and supervision of medicines for human and veterinary use. The EMEA is responsible for the scientific evaluation of applications for European marketing authorisation for medicinal products (centralised procedure). Under the centralised procedure, companies submit one single marketing authorisation application to the EMEA.

Enantiomers

Pairs of molecules that differ only in their chirality. Real-life examples of enantiomers would be your left and right hands. A racemic mixture is a mixture of enantiomers in equal proportions.

Encode

Provides the sequence of proteins.

Endothelial

Relating to the endothelium, the layer of flat cells lining the closed spaces of the body such as the inside of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, the heart, and body cavities.

Enzyme

A protein that triggers activity in the cells of the body. An enzyme is not affected by the activity that it catalyses.

Enzymology

The branch of biochemistry that studies enzymes.

Epilepsy

A chronic neurological disorder characterised by recurrent, unprovoked seizures (or convulsions), a temporary alteration in brain function expressing by a changed mental state, tonic (general stiffness) or clonic movements (rapid contractions and relaxations of a muscle) and various other symptoms due to temporary abnormal electrical activity of a group of brain cells. Keppra®, UCB's anti-epileptic, is approved for primary generalised tonic/clonic seizures.

Epitope

A molecular region on the surface of an antigen capable of eliciting an immune response and of combining with the specific antibody produced by such a response.

Escherichia coli (E. coli)

Is one of the main species of bacteria that live in the lower intestines of warm-blooded animals (including birds and mammals) and is necessary for the proper digestion of food. It is a bacteria commonly used as a host cell for cloning segments of genomic DNA.