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Our Science Glossary glossary_b



A type of white blood cell made in the bone marrow that releases antibodies in an immune system response. They are also known as B-cells.

BLA or biologics licence application

The drug regulatory process in which pharmaceutical companies apply to the US FDA for permission to market biological products in the United States. See also, NDA.


The fraction of an administered dose of drug that reaches the systemic circulation or blood plasma. When a medication is administered intravenously, its bioavailability is 100% ; when a medication is administered via other routes (such as orally), its bioavailability decreases due to incomplete absorption and first-pass metabolism, the route through the digestion system and liver.


A characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated to determine the progress of disease or the effects of treatment. They can be used to identify patients who are more likely to benefit from or experience an adverse reaction in response to a given therapy. Stratified medicine will result in an increased reliance on biomarkers to verify clinical effectiveness.


The application of physics to biological processes and phenomena.


Removal of a sample of tissue, which is then examined under a microscope to check for cancer cells.

Bone Deposition

The process where osteoblasts create, strengthen and build new bone through the laying down of a protein matrix which subsequently incorporates crystals of mineral hydroxyapatite (the mineral component of bones and teeth).


Any of the larger air passages that connect the trachea (windpipe) to the lungs.